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Economic Order Quantity: Optimizing Inventory with EOQ

If the person wishes to know the annual holding costs, they may average the units and multiply them by the holding costs. Minimizing the holding costs to the barest minimum is an important aspect of warehouse management. Companies use warehouse inventory management software to help keep their holding costs low. The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is an inventory management system that ensures a company orders the right amount of inventory that meets the demand for the product.

  • This refers to all the costs that are involved in storing or handling the items in your store or warehouse.
  • Overall, the benefits of using the EOQ model extend beyond mere cost savings.
  • These resources tied up in inventory could be invested elsewhere.
  • Additionally, the economic order interval[8] can be determined from the EOQ and the economic production quantity model (which determines the optimal production quantity) can be determined in a similar fashion.

The EOQ formula can be paired with the reorder point formula, which helps a business identify when it should order more inventory. Using these calculations together can help a business avoid running out of stock for its products without carrying more inventory than it needs to. Economic Order Quantity assumes both the ordering and holding costs are constant.

How to Use EOQ – Example 1

The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) formula helps to avoid these mis-stocking situations. It calculates the ideal number of units you should order, such that the cost involved is minimal and number of units is optimal. Jason is wondering if he can save inventory costs by adopting EOQ model. The cost of damage and shrinkage (theft) of inventory increases as more units of inventory are held at the warehouse. Holding costs on the other hand decrease with an increase in number of orders because doing so reduces the average units of inventory ordered and therefore held. If we change the order quantity, it can affect the different types of inventory costs in different ways.

Ordering Costs increase linearly with an increase in number of orders, e.g. if one order costs $150 to process, 2 orders will cost $300 and so on. If we plot this information for a number of orders on the graph, it will appear as follows. Order Quantity is the number of units added to inventory each time an order is placed. But, according to the inventory size, the need for 400 Sq yards of the warehouse would be enough. Along with ordering the right amount of inventory, it’s also essential to collect the quantity of stock that best fits the economic and financial needs of the organization.

Only Product is Involved

Get instant access to lessons taught by experienced private equity pros and bulge bracket investment bankers including financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel Modeling. To know the annual ordering costs, the person can multiply the ordering cost by the number of orders per year. Working capital is the funds that facilitate the smooth functioning of a regular firm’s activities. EOQ can help an organization understand the optimal level of ordering. These resources tied up in inventory could be invested elsewhere. It might have a problem filling customer orders and satisfying their needs.

How to calculate EOQ?

A financial professional will offer guidance based on the information provided and offer a no-obligation call to better understand your situation. At Finance Strategists, we partner with financial experts to ensure the accuracy of our financial content. The first stage in our working is to compute the annual requirement.


The EOQ model seeks to ensure that the right amount of inventory is ordered per batch so a company does not have to make orders too frequently and there is not an excess of inventory sitting on hand. It assumes that there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and inventory setup costs, and total inventory costs are minimized when both setup costs and holding costs are minimized. The proposed inventory system is studied as a cost minimisation problem, with the total cost being the objective function, and the cycle time (and the order quantity) as the decision variable(s)—since both are jointly determined. Increasing the holding cost increases the total cost and reduces the EOQ, as shown in Table 7.

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Therefore, making it impossible to account for other factors that can affect the ordering and holding costs. Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is the order size that minimizes the sum of ordering and holding costs related to raw materials or merchandise inventories. Keeping costs low will inflate margins and ultimately drive more revenue for the company. Ordering the optimal number of products needed helps the company to keep its costs low and prevent dead stocks. The aim of calculating the Economic Order Quantity is to determine the number of inventory to be attached to each order at the lowest possible costs.

Order Cost Calculation (S)

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